Qt's WinRT port and its C++/CX usage


After Friedemann has given an initial introduction about Qt's Windows Runtime port, I would like to give some further insight about technical aspects and our ways of working on the port.

When reading about Windows Runtime development (Windows 8 store applications and Windows runtime components) in connection with C++ you will find C++/CX again and again. Windows C++/CX are C++ language extensions which were developed by Microsoft to make software development for Windows Runtime easier by bringing it "as close as possible to modern C++" (Visual C++ Language Reference (C++/CX)). In some cases, these extensions look similar to C++/CLI constructs, but they might have other meanings or slightly different grammar.

The first thing that catches someone's eye when one has a look at C++/CX documentation or an example/application are lines like
Foo ^foo = ref new Foo();
The ^ is basically a pointer, but gives the additional information that it is used on a ref-counted COM object so that memory management happens "automagically". The "ref new" keyword means that the user wants to create a new "Ref class" (see Ref classes and structs in Type System (C++/CX)), which means that it is copied by reference and memory management happens by reference count.  So there isn't much magic involved in that line; it only tells the compiler that the object's memory can be managed by reference count and the user does not have to delete it himself.

Basically C++/CX is just what its name tells us it is - extensions to the C++ language. Everything ends up as native unmanaged code quite similar to the way Qt works. Some people might argue whether it is necessary to reinvent the wheel for the n-th time where a lot of the "problems" are actually solved in C++11 (by the way, auto foo also works in the example above), but that is what was decided for Windows Runtime development.

Use of C++/CX inside Qt's WinRT port

Microsoft has said on different occasions (among others during the Build conference 2012) that everything that can be done using C++/CX can also be done without the extensions, as everything ends up as native code in either case. So we had to decide whether we want to use the new fancy stuff or take the cumbersome road of manual memory management etc. Theoretically there is nothing that keeps us from using C++/CX in Qt's WinRT port, but there are some reasons why we try to avoid them.

For one, these extensions might prevent developers who are willing to help with the Windows Runtime port from having a deeper look at the code. If you do not have any previous experience with this development environment, having new constructs and keywords (in addition to new code) might be enough for you to close the editor right away. While WinRT code which doesn't use CX might not be especially beautiful, there are no non-default things which might obscure it even more.

Another issue is that Qt Creator's code model cannot handle these extensions (yet). You don't get any auto completion for ^-pointers, for example. This can of course be fixed in Qt Creator and time will tell whether it will be, but at the moment the port and basic Qt Creator integration (building, debugging & deployment) are our first priorities.
Due to these facts, we decided that we do not want to use the extensions. Though, if someone wants to help out with the port and is eager to use CX he/she might be able to persuade us to get the code in (after proper review of course ;) ).

Problems and challenges of not using C++/CX

The main problem when it comes to development of Windows Runtime code without using C++/CX is the severe lack of documentation. While the MSDN documentation generally can be improved in certain areas, it almost completely lacks anything about this topic. But thanks to Andrew Knight, who gave me an initial overview how things are to be used and was always helpful whenever I had additional questions, I think I am getting the grip on things. In order to help others who want to join the efforts (and have all the things written down), I will cover some basic areas below.


The namespaces given in the documentation are always the same for the CX usage of the classes,  just with "ABI" added as the root namespace. So for StreamSocket, Windows::Networking::Sockets becomes ABI::Windows::Networking::Sockets. Additionally, you probably need Microsoft::WRL (and also Microsoft::WRL::Wrappers). WRL stands for "Windows Runtime C++ Template Library" and is used for direct COM access in Windows Runtime applications - but you will also need its functionality when omitting CX (for creating instances for example).

Creating instances

When not using CX, most of the classes cannot be accessed directly. Instead, there are interface classes which need to be used. These interfaces are marked by an 'I' in front of the class name so that StreamSocket becomes IStreamSocket. As these interfaces are abstract classes, they cannot be instantiated directly. First of all, you have to create a string which represents the class's classId.
HStringReference classId(RuntimeClass_Windows_Networking_Sockets_StreamSockets);

These RuntimeClass_Windows... constructs are defined in the related header files and expand to strings like "Windows.Networking.Sockets.StreamSocket" for example. The way objects can be instantiated depends on whether the class is default constructable or not. If it is, ActivateInstance can be used to obtain an object of the type you are after.

IStreamSocket *streamSocket = 0;
if (FAILED(ActivateInstance(classId.Get(), &streamSocket)) {
// handle error

Unfortunately, the ActivateInstance convenience function fails for StreamSocket in that case as it expects a ComPtr as parameter. In order to avoid that failure one has to take the long way using RoActivateInstance

IInspectable *inspectable = 0;
if (FAILED(RoActivateInstance(classId.Get(), &inspectable)) {
// handle error
if (FAILED(inspectable->QueryInterface(IID_PPV_ARGS(&streamSocket)))) {
// handle error

If the class is not default constructable, it has to use a factory in order to create instances. These factories can be obtained by calling GetActivationFactory with the appropriate class Id. One example of a class like that would be HostName:

IHostNameFactory *hostnameFactory;
HStringReference classId(RuntimeClass_Windows_Networking_HostName);
if (FAILED(GetActivationFactory(classId.Get(), &hostnameFactory))) {
// handle error
IHostName *host;
HStringReference hostNameRef(L"http://qt-project.org");
hostnameFactory->CreateHostName(hostNameRef.Get(), &host);

People who are used to Windows development probably have already noticed that all this is COM based. That means that all this has been around for ages and is loved everywhere.

Calling static functions

For classes which have static functions there is an extra interface for these functions. These interfaces are marked by "Statics" at the end of the "basic" interface name and can also be obtained by using GetActivationFactory. One example would be IDatagramSocketStatics which contains GetEndpointPairsAsync for example.

IDatagramSocketStatics *datagramSocketStatics;
GetActivationFactory(HString::MakeReference(RuntimeClass_Windows_Networking_Sockets_DatagramSocket).Get(), &datagramSocketStatics);

IAsyncOperation<IVectorView *> *endpointpairoperation;
HSTRING service;
WindowsCreateString(L"0", 1, &service);
datagramSocketStatics->GetEndpointPairsAsync(host, service, &endpointpairoperation);

The endpointpairoperation defines the callback(s) for this asynchronous function, but that topic could be covered in another post. The interesting parts here are how the datagramSocketStatics pointer is filled by calling GetActivationFactory and the actual call to the static function by datagramSocketStatics->GetEndpointPairsAsync(...).


There is a way to use reference counted memory management even without using CX. It can be achieved by using the Microsoft-provided smart pointer ComPtr. So
IStreamSocket *streamSocket
would become
ComPtr<IStreamSocket> streamSocket.
When using these, we had some memory access errors we could not explain (but did not investigate much further). In addition to that, Qt Creator does not support code completion with "streamSocket->" but one would have to call "streamSocket.Get()->". Thus we decided not to use ComPtr but keep using "normal" pointers. All you have to do is to remember to call "Release" as soon as you are done with the pointer.

All in all, we try to avoid these extensions even though it might not make the code beautiful. If you want to contribute though and feel at home using these, feel free to create a patch containing CX code. If you have any further questions or advice, feel free to add them in the comments or join us in #qt-winrt on freenode.

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